Charles Cohen, Ph.D. has been a director since November 1995. Dr. Cohen is an independent investor and the Chief Executive Officer of two biotechnology start-up companies, On Target Therapeutics, LLC and Perform Biologics, Inc. From May 2007 to December 2015, Dr. Cohen was a managing director of Synthesis Capital (formerly Advent Healthcare Ventures), a venture capital firm. Prior to that, Dr. Cohen was Vice President of Advent International, a global private equity firm from 2003 to 2007. From 2000 to 2002, Dr. Cohen was the Chief Executive Officer of Cellzome AG, a post-genomics biotechnology company. Prior to that time, Dr. Cohen co-founded Creative BioMolecules, Inc., a biotechnology company, in 1982 and was one of its directors and its Chief Executive Officer from 1985 to 1995. Dr. Cohen served as a member of the board of directors of various publicly-held biopharmaceutical companies, including Anadys Pharmaceuticals, Inc., from 2000 to 2005 and Anesiva, Inc., from 2005 to 2007. He serves on the board of directors and as a Chief Executive Officer of several Advent Healthcare Ventures privately-held portfolio companies. Dr. Cohen also served as the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Cellzome AG, prior to its acquisition by GlaxoSmithKline in May 2012, and as the Chief Executive Officer of several other companies. Dr. Cohen received his Ph.D. from New York University School of Medicine.