George A. Scangos, Ph.D. has been a director since October 1996. Since January 2017, Dr. Scangos has served as Chief Executive Officer and as a member of the board of directors of Vir Biotechnology, Inc., a privately held biotechnology company focused on fighting infectious diseases. From July 2010 to December 2016, Dr. Scangos served as Chief Executive Officer and as a member of the board of directors of Biogen Inc. Prior to joining the Biogen organization, from October 1996 to July 2010, Dr. Scangos served as our President and Chief Executive Officer. From September 1993 to October 1996, he served as President of Biotechnology at Bayer Corporation, a pharmaceutical company, and was responsible for research, business and process development, manufacturing, engineering, and quality assurance. Dr. Scangos has served as a member of the board of directors of various publicly-held companies, including Anadys Pharmaceuticals, Inc. from 2003 to 2010 and Entelos, Inc. from 1997 to 2010. Dr. Scangos also served as a member of the board of directors of our former subsidiary, TaconicArtemis GmbH (previously known as Artemis Pharmaceuticals GmbH) until 2010. Dr. Scangos previously served as the Chair of the California Healthcare Institute (CHI), as a member of the Board of the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, and as a member of the board of directors of BayBio. Dr. Scangos currently serves as a director of Agilent Technologies, Inc. and Fondation Santé. Dr. Scangos is also a member of the Board of Advisors of the University of California, San Francisco School of Pharmacy, and the National Board of Advisors of the University of California, Davis School of Medicine. He was a Jane Coffin Childs Post-Doctoral Fellow at Yale University and a faculty member at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Scangos currently holds an appointment as Adjunct Professor of Biology at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Scangos holds a B.A. in Biology from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of Massachusetts.