Julie Anne Smith has been a director since September 2016. Since August 2018, Ms. Smith has served as the President and CEO of E-Scape Bio, a biotech company discovering and developing treatments for inherited neurodegenerative diseases. Prior to E-Scape Bio, Ms. Smith was President and Chief Executive Officer of Nuredis from July 2017 to June 2018. Previously she was President and Chief Executive Officer of Raptor Pharmaceuticals from January 2015 up until the company’s acquisition by Horizon Pharma plc in October 2016. Before rising to the role of CEO at Raptor, Ms. Smith served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer from 2012 to 2014. From 2008 to 2012, Ms. Smith served as Chief Commercial Officer of Enobia Pharmaceuticals prior to the company’s acquisition by Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Previously, Ms. Smith served as the Vice President of Commercial at Jazz Pharmaceuticals from 2006 to 2008, overseeing commercial strategy and operations. From 2001 to 2005, Ms. Smith served as Vice President, Global Marketing at Genzyme General, and helped to establish the commercial team for the biotech start-up, Novazyme Pharmaceuticals, from 2000 to 2001. Ms. Smith began her industry career at Bristol-Myers Squibb, joining the company in 1996 as a Product Manager and rising to become a Director of channel strategy and design. Previously, Ms. Smith was a Director on the Health and Emerging Companies Sections of the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) board and has also served on the Board of Directors at Audentes Therapeutics, Inc. since December 2016. Ms. Smith holds a B.S. in biological and nutritional sciences from Cornell University.