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– Independent Radiology Review Committee confirms primary endpoint analysis per investigator: cabozantinib provided statistically significant improvement of progression-free survival, with a 52 percent reduction in the rate of progression or death compared to sunitinib –
CABOSUN is being conducted by
“These updated analyses from CABOSUN consistently show that cabozantinib
provided a statistically significant decrease in the rate of disease
progression or death compared to sunitinib, a current standard of care –
potentially offering a new treatment option for physicians to treat
patients in the first-line advanced renal cell carcinoma setting,” said
The following chart outlines data from the CABOSUN trial presented today
at ESMO 2017, as compared to the data previously published in the
(Sept 15, 2016 Cut-off)
(Sept 15, 2016 Cut-off)
N = 79
N = 78
N = 79
N = 78
N = 79
N = 78
|Median PFS, months||8.2||5.6||8.3||5.4||8.6||5.3|
|0.66 (0.46-0.95)||0.56 (0.37-0.83)||0.48 (0.31-0.74)|
|P value||0.012 (1-sided)||0.0042 (2-sided)||0.0008 (2-sided)|
|Objective response rate (95% CI),a %||46 (34-57)||18 (10-28)||33 (23-44)||12 (5-21)||20 (12-31)||9 (4-18)|
|Disease control rate,b %||78||54||76||49||75||47|
|Progressive disease,c %||18||26||18||24||18||29|
|Not evaluable or missing, %||4||21||6||27||8||23|
|Any reduction in target lesions, %||87||44||85||38||80||50|
|a||One complete response was observed with cabozantinib for both investigator assessments, and one complete response was observed with sunitinib for the original investigator assessment, all other responses were partial responses; b Complete response + partial response + stable disease; c Progressive disease as best overall response.|
The updated 2017 data sets and methods differ from the initial
investigator analyses presented in 2016. The comprehensive image
collection for IRC review used a later cut-off point (5 months) than the
initial investigator analysis and followed a rigorous IRC review
process. The analysis of IRC data applied
The updated overall survival (OS) analysis had a data cut-off of
“We are very encouraged by the clinically meaningful and statistically
significant efficacy results on the primary endpoint of progression-free
survival, which formed the basis of the recent supplemental New Drug
Application submitted to the
The most common all-causality grade 3 or 4 adverse events in more than 5 percent of patients for cabozantinib (N=78) and sunitinib (N=72), respectively, were diarrhea (10 vs. 11 percent), hypertension (28 vs. 21 percent), fatigue (6 vs. 17 percent), increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 5 vs. 0 percent), decreased appetite (5 vs. 1 percent), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES; 8 vs. 4 percent), decreased platelet count (1 vs. 11 percent) and stomatitis (5 vs. 6 percent). Twenty-one percent of patients in the cabozantinib arm and 22 percent of patients in the sunitinib arm discontinued treatment due to adverse events.
About the CABOSUN Study
CABOSUN is a randomized, open-label, active-controlled phase 2 trial that enrolled 157 patients with advanced RCC determined to be intermediate- or poor-risk by the IMDC criteria. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive cabozantinib (60 mg once daily) or sunitinib (50 mg once daily, 4 weeks on followed by 2 weeks off). The primary endpoint was PFS. Secondary endpoints included OS and objective response rate.
Eligible patients were required to have locally advanced or metastatic clear-cell RCC, ECOG performance status 0-2 and had to be intermediate or poor risk per the IMDC criteria (Heng, JCO, 2009).3 Prior systemic treatment for RCC was not permitted. Baseline characteristics included:
|ECOG performance status, %|
|IMDC risk group, %|
|Bone metastasis per IxRS,a %|
|Prior nephrectomy, %|
|Number of metastatic sites per investigator, %|
|a interactive voice/web response system|
Please see Important Safety Information below and full U.S. prescribing information at https://cabometyx.com/downloads/cabometyxuspi.pdf.
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About Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
The American Cancer Society’s 2017 statistics cite kidney cancer as among the top ten most commonly diagnosed forms of cancer among both men and women in the U.S.4 Clear cell RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults.5 If detected in its early stages, the five-year survival rate for RCC is high; for patients with advanced or late-stage metastatic RCC, however, the five-year survival rate is only 12 percent, with no identified cure for the disease.6 Approximately 30,000 patients in the U.S. and 68,000 globally require treatment, and an estimated 14,000 patients in the U.S. each year are in need of a first-line treatment for advanced kidney cancer.7
The majority of clear cell RCC tumors have lower than normal levels of a protein called von Hippel-Lindau, which leads to higher levels of MET, AXL and VEGF.8,9 These proteins promote tumor angiogenesis (blood vessel growth), growth, invasiveness and metastasis.10-13 MET and AXL may provide escape pathways that drive resistance to VEGF receptor inhibitors.8,9
About CABOMETYX® (cabozantinib)
CABOMETYX is the tablet formulation of cabozantinib. Its targets include MET, AXL and VEGFR-1, -2 and -3. In preclinical models, cabozantinib has been shown to inhibit the activity of these receptors, which are involved in normal cellular function and pathologic processes such as tumor angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis and drug resistance. CABOMETYX is available in 20 mg, 40 mg or 60 mg doses. The recommended dose is 60 mg orally, once daily.
CABOMETYX is not indicated for the treatment of previously untreated advanced RCC.
U.S. Important Safety Information
Hemorrhage: Severe hemorrhage occurred with CABOMETYX. The incidence of Grade ≥3 hemorrhagic events was 2.1% in CABOMETYX-treated patients and 1.6% in everolimus-treated patients. Fatal hemorrhages also occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Do not administer CABOMETYX to patients that have or are at risk for severe hemorrhage.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Perforations and Fistulas: Fistulas were reported in 1.2% (including 0.6% anal fistula) of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0% of everolimus-treated patients. GI perforations were reported in 0.9% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0.6% of everolimus-treated patients. Fatal perforations occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Monitor patients for symptoms of fistulas and perforations. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who experience a fistula that cannot be appropriately managed or a GI perforation.
Thrombotic Events: CABOMETYX treatment results in an increased incidence of thrombotic events. Venous thromboembolism was reported in 7.3% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 2.5% of everolimus-treated patients. Pulmonary embolism occurred in 3.9% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0.3% of everolimus-treated patients. Events of arterial thromboembolism were reported in 0.9% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0.3% of everolimus-treated patients. Fatal thrombotic events occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop an acute myocardial infarction or any other arterial thromboembolic complication.
Hypertension and Hypertensive Crisis: CABOMETYX treatment results in an increased incidence of treatment-emergent hypertension. Hypertension was reported in 37% (15% Grade ≥3) of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 7.1% (3.1% Grade ≥3) of everolimus-treated patients. Monitor blood pressure prior to initiation and regularly during CABOMETYX treatment. Withhold CABOMETYX for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with medical management; when controlled, resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Discontinue CABOMETYX for severe hypertension that cannot be controlled with anti-hypertensive therapy. Discontinue CABOMETYX if there is evidence of hypertensive crisis or severe hypertension despite optimal medical management.
Diarrhea: Diarrhea occurred in 74% of patients treated with CABOMETYX and in 28% of patients treated with everolimus. Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 11% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and in 2% of everolimus-treated patients. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 diarrhea or Grade 3-4 diarrhea that cannot be managed with standard antidiarrheal treatments until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Dose modification due to diarrhea occurred in 26% of patients.
Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia Syndrome (PPES): Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) occurred in 42% of patients treated with CABOMETYX and in 6% of patients treated with everolimus. Grade 3 PPES occurred in 8.2% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and in <1% of everolimus-treated patients. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 PPES or Grade 3 PPES until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Dose modification due to PPES occurred in 16% of patients.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS): RPLS, a syndrome of subcortical vasogenic edema diagnosed by characteristic finding on MRI, occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Perform an evaluation for RPLS in any patient presenting with seizures, headache, visual disturbances, confusion, or altered mental function. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop RPLS.
Embryo-fetal Toxicity: CABOMETYX can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the last dose.
Adverse Reactions: The most commonly reported (≥25%) adverse reactions are: diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, PPES, hypertension, vomiting, weight decreased, and constipation.
Drug Interactions: Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers: Reduce the dosage of CABOMETYX if concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided. Increase the dosage of CABOMETYX if concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inducers cannot be avoided.
Lactation: Advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment with CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the final dose.
Reproductive Potential: Contraception―Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the final dose. Infertility ―CABOMETYX may impair fertility in females and males of reproductive potential.
Hepatic Impairment: Reduce the CABOMETYX dose in patients with mild (Child-Pugh score [C-P] A) or moderate (C-P B) hepatic impairment. CABOMETYX is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Founded in 1994,
Exelixis Forward-Looking Statement Disclaimer
This press release contains forward-looking statements, including,
without limitation, statements related to: the presentation of detailed
data from CABOSUN at ESMO; the therapeutic potential of cabozantinib as
a treatment for patients with previously untreated RCC; the commitment
1. Guidance for Industry: Clinical Trial Endpoints for the Approval of
Cancer Drugs and Biologics.
2. Choueiri, T.K., et al. Cabozantinib versus Sunitinib as Initial Targeted Therapy for Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma of Poor or Intermediate Risk: The Alliance A031203 CABOSUN Trial. Am J Clin Oncol. 2016; 35:591-597.
3. Heng D.Y., Xie W., Regan M.M., et al. Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents: Results from a large, multicenter study. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27:5794-5799.
5. Jonasch, E., Gao, J., Rathmell, W. Renal cell carcinoma. BMJ. 2014; 349:g4797.
6. Ko, J., Choueiri, T., et al. First-, second- third-line therapy for mRCC: benchmarks for trial design from the IMDC. Br J Cancer. 2014; 110:1917-1922.
7. Decision Resources Report: Renal Cell Carcinoma.
8. Harshman, L., and Choueiri, T. Targeting the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer J. 2013; 19:316-323.
9. Rankin, et al. Direct regulation of GAS6/AXL signaling by HIF promotes renal metastasis through SRC and MET. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111:13373-13378.
10. Zhou, L., Liu, X-D., Sun, M., et al. Targeting MET and AXL overcomes resistance to sunitinib therapy in renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene. 2016; 35:2687-2697.
11. Koochekpour, et al. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene inhibits hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced invasion and branching morphogenesis in renal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1999; 19:5902–5912.
12. Takahashi, A., Sasaki, H., Kim, S., et al. Markedly increased amounts of messenger RNAs for vascular endothelial growth factor and placenta growth factor in renal cell carcinoma associated with angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 1994; 54:4233-4237.
13. Nakagawa, M., Emoto, A., Hanada, T., Nasu, N., Nomura, Y. Tubulogenesis by microvascular endothelial cells is mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1997; 79:681-687.
Susan Hubbard, 650-837-8194
EVP, Public Affairs and Investor Relations
Lindsay Treadway, 650-837-7522
Director, Public Affairs and Advocacy Relations