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– CABOMETYX recommended for the treatment of previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma across all patient risk groups –
Key CABOMETYX-related highlights from the updated NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines for Kidney Cancer include:1
- CABOMETYX is the only preferred tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment option for first-line patients in the poor- and intermediate-risk groups (Category 2A)
- CABOMETYX is a recommended first-line treatment option for favorable-risk patients (Category 2B)
- CABOMETYX is the only preferred TKI treatment option for previously treated patients (Category 1)
“CABOMETYX is the only TKI indicated for the treatment of advanced
kidney cancer with NCCN-preferred status for intermediate- and poor-risk
groups in the first-line setting and the only TKI with preferred status
for patients who have progressed on prior therapy,” said Michael M.
Morrissey, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines are the recognized standard for clinical policy in cancer care and are developed through review of evidence and recommendations from physicians and oncology researchers. The NCCN kidney cancer panel’s decision to include CABOMETYX as a Category 2A preferred option for the treatment of patients with previously untreated advanced RCC with poor- or intermediate-risk disease was based on the results of the phase 2 CABOSUN trial.
Additionally, in its recent update to the Clinical Practice Guidelines
for Hepatobiliary Cancers, the NCCN added cabozantinib as a Category 1
option for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
(Child-Pugh Class A only) who have been previously treated with
sorafenib.2 CABOMETYX is not
About the CABOSUN Study
CABOSUN was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled phase 2 trial that enrolled 157 patients with advanced RCC determined to be intermediate- or poor-risk by the IMDC criteria. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive cabozantinib (60 mg once daily) or sunitinib (50 mg once daily, 4 weeks on followed by 2 weeks off). The primary endpoint was PFS. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate and safety. Eligible patients were required to have locally advanced or metastatic clear-cell RCC, ECOG performance status 0-2 and had to be intermediate- or poor-risk per the IMDC criteria (Heng, JCO, 2009).4 Prior systemic treatment for RCC was not permitted.
About Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
The American Cancer Society’s 2018 statistics cite kidney cancer as among the top ten most commonly diagnosed forms of cancer among both men and women in the U.S.5 Clear cell RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults.6 If detected in its early stages, the five-year survival rate for RCC is high; for patients with advanced or late-stage metastatic RCC, however, the five-year survival rate is only 12 percent, with no identified cure for the disease.7 Approximately 30,000 patients in the U.S. and 68,000 globally require treatment, and an estimated 14,000 patients in the U.S. each year are in need of a first-line treatment for advanced kidney cancer.7
The majority of clear cell RCC tumors have lower than normal levels of a protein called von Hippel-Lindau, which leads to higher levels of MET, AXL and VEGF.8,9 These proteins promote tumor angiogenesis (blood vessel growth), growth, invasiveness and metastasis.10,11,12,13 MET and AXL may provide escape pathways that drive resistance to VEGF receptor inhibitors.9,10
Liver cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for more than 700,000 deaths and nearly 800,000 new cases each year.14 In the U.S., the incidence of liver cancer has more than tripled since 1980.5 HCC is the most common form of liver cancer, making up about three-fourths of the estimated nearly 42,000 new cases in the U.S. in 2018.5 HCC is the fastest-rising cause of cancer-related death in U.S.15 Without treatment, patients with advanced HCC usually survive less than 6 months.16
About CABOMETYX® (cabozantinib)
CABOMETYX tablets are approved in
U.S. Important Safety Information
- Hemorrhage: Severe and fatal hemorrhages have occurred with CABOMETYX. In two RCC studies, the incidence of Grade ≥ 3 hemorrhagic events was 3% in CABOMETYX-treated patients. Do not administer CABOMETYX to patients that have or are at risk for severe hemorrhage.
- Gastrointestinal (GI) Perforations and Fistulas: In RCC studies, fistulas were reported in 1% of CABOMETYX-treated patients. Fatal perforations occurred in patients treated with CABOMETYX. In RCC studies, gastrointestinal (GI) perforations were reported in 1% of CABOMETYX-treated patients. Monitor patients for symptoms of fistulas and perforations, including abscess and sepsis. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who experience a fistula which cannot be appropriately managed or a GI perforation.
- Thrombotic Events: CABOMETYX treatment results in an increased incidence of thrombotic events. In RCC studies, venous thromboembolism occurred in 9% (including 5% pulmonary embolism) and arterial thromboembolism occurred in 1% of CABOMETYX-treated patients. Fatal thrombotic events occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop an acute myocardial infarction or any other arterial thromboembolic complication.
- Hypertension and Hypertensive Crisis: CABOMETYX treatment results in an increased incidence of treatment-emergent hypertension, including hypertensive crisis. In RCC studies, hypertension was reported in 44% (18% Grade ≥ 3) of CABOMETYX-treated patients. Monitor blood pressure prior to initiation and regularly during CABOMETYX treatment. Withhold CABOMETYX for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with medical management; when controlled, resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Discontinue CABOMETYX for severe hypertension that cannot be controlled with anti-hypertensive therapy. Discontinue CABOMETYX if there is evidence of hypertensive crisis or severe hypertension despite optimal medical management.
- Diarrhea: In RCC studies, diarrhea occurred in 74% of patients treated with CABOMETYX. Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 11% of patients treated with CABOMETYX. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 diarrhea or Grade 3-4 diarrhea that cannot be managed with standard antidiarrheal treatments until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose.
- Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE): In RCC studies, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) occurred in 42% of patients treated with CABOMETYX. Grade 3 PPE occurred in 8% of patients treated with CABOMETYX. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 PPE or Grade 3 PPE until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose.
- Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS), a syndrome of subcortical vasogenic edema diagnosed by characteristic finding on MRI, occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Perform an evaluation for RPLS in any patient presenting with seizures, headache, visual disturbances, confusion or altered mental function. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop RPLS.
- Embryo-fetal Toxicity may be associated with CABOMETYX. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during CABOMETYX treatment and for 4 months after the last dose.
- Adverse Reactions: The most commonly reported (≥25%) adverse reactions are: diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, hypertension, PPE, weight decreased, vomiting, dysgeusia, and stomatitis.
- Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors: If concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the CABOMETYX dosage.
- Strong CYP3A4 Inducers: If concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inducers cannot be avoided, increase the CABOMETYX dosage.
- Lactation: Advise women not to breastfeed while taking CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the final dose.
- Hepatic Impairment: In patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, reduce the CABOMETYX dosage. CABOMETYX is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Founded in 1994,
1 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice
Guidelines in Oncology. Kidney Cancer. Version 1.2019. Updated
2 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Hepatobiliary Cancers. Version 3.2018. Updated
3 Choueiri, T.K., et al. Cabozantinib versus Sunitinib as Initial Targeted Therapy for Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma of Poor or Intermediate Risk: The Alliance A031203 CABOSUN Trial. Am J Clin Oncol. 2016; 35:591-597.
4 Heng D.Y., Xie W., Regan M.M., et al. Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents: Results from a large, multicenter study. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27:5794-5799.
6 Jonasch, E., Gao, J., Rathmell, W. Renal cell carcinoma. BMJ. 2014; 349:g4797.
7 Decision Resources Report: Renal Cell Carcinoma.
8 Harshman, L., and Choueiri, T. Targeting the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer J. 2013; 19:316-323.
9 Rankin, et al. Direct regulation of GAS6/AXL signaling by HIF promotes renal metastasis through SRC and MET.
10 Zhou, L., Liu, X-D., Sun, M., et al. Targeting MET and AXL overcomes resistance to sunitinib therapy in renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene. 2016; 35:2687-2697.
11 Koochekpour, et al. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene inhibits hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced invasion and branching morphogenesis in renal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1999; 19:5902–5912.
12 Takahashi, A., Sasaki, H., Kim, S., et al. Markedly increased amounts of messenger RNAs for vascular endothelial growth factor and placenta growth factor in renal cell carcinoma associated with angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 1994; 54:4233-4237.
13 Nakagawa, M., Emoto, A., Hanada, T., Nasu, N., Nomura, Y. Tubulogenesis by microvascular endothelial cells is mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1997; 79:681-687.
14 Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide. Liver Cancer.
15 Mittal S, El-Serag HB. Epidemiology of HCC: Consider the Population.
16 Weledji E, Orock G, Ngowe M, NsaghaD. How grim is hepatocellular carcinoma? Annals of Medicine and Surgery. 2014. 3:71-76.
Susan Hubbard, 650-837-8194
EVP, Public Affairs and
Lindsay Treadway, 650-837-7522
Senior Director, Public Affairs and