− Recommended doses for ongoing expansion cohorts and future potential trials identified for doublet and triplet combinations based on encouraging tolerability, safety and activity profile −
Among the 43 patients who were evaluable for response, the objective response rate (ORR) for all tumor types was 30 percent (38 percent for the doublet dosing schedule and 18 percent for the triplet dosing schedule), with a 7 percent complete response (CR) rate and a 23 percent partial response (PR) rate. Stable disease (SD) was reported in 56 percent of patients. The ORR for patients with mUC was 38 percent, and 2 of 16 patients achieved a CR, while 2 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder had objective responses (1 CR and 1 PR). In the mUC cohort, 15 of 16 patients had a CR, PR or SD as their best response.
Grade 3 adverse events (>5 percent of patients) observed in the doublet combination included neutropenia (17 percent), hypophosphatemia (13 percent), hypertension (10 percent), lipase increase (7 percent), fatigue (7 percent), diarrhea (7 percent) and dehydration (7 percent). Grade 3 adverse events (>5 percent of patients) observed in the triplet combination included hypertension (17 percent), hypophosphatemia (17 percent), fatigue (13 percent), hyponatremia (13 percent), lipase increase (13 percent), nausea (13 percent) and rash (6 percent). There were limited numbers of grade 4 adverse events (10 percent including thrombocytopenia and lipase increase in the doublet combination, and 6 percent (lipase increase) in the triplet combination), and no grade 5 adverse events observed in either part of the trial.
“There is a significant unmet need for treatment regimens that can slow
tumor progression in advanced, intractable cancers such as metastatic
urothelial carcinoma. The use of combination therapies may be a strategy
that could increase anti-tumor activity in these patients,” said
The recommended doses for the ongoing expansion cohorts were determined to be cabozantinib 40 mg daily plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks for the doublet and cabozantinib 40 mg daily, nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for the triplet.
“These early clinical results generated by our collaborators at the
NCI-CTEP suggest that the combination of cabozantinib with either
nivolumab or nivolumab and ipilimumab in patients with genitourinary
malignancies is associated with an encouraging tolerability, safety and
activity profile,” said
About the Trial
The trial is sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements between the
NCI’s Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP), Division of
The primary endpoint of the phase 1 trial is to determine the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and recommended phase 2 doses of the doublet and triplet combinations. The secondary endpoint is clinical response rate as assessed by RECIST 1.1. Part I of the study included four dosing levels: cabozantinib 40 mg daily plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg once every 2 weeks; cabozantinib 40 mg daily plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks; cabozantinib 60 mg daily plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg once every 2 weeks; and cabozantinib 60 mg daily plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks.
Part II of the study included three dosing levels: cabozantinib 40 mg daily, nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then nivolumab 1 mg/kg every 2 weeks; cabozantinib 40 mg daily, nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks; and cabozantinib 60 mg daily, nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks.
Data from Part I of the study evaluating the combination of cabozantinib
with nivolumab in patients with previously treated genitourinary tumors
were presented by Dr. Apolo at the
About Genitourinary Cancers
Genitourinary cancers are those that affect the urinary tract, bladder, kidneys, ureter, prostate, testicles, penis or adrenal glands — parts of the body involved in reproduction and excretion — and include renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma.1
Kidney cancer is among the top ten most commonly diagnosed forms of cancer among both men and women in the U.S., according to the American Cancer Society’s 2016 statistics.2 Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults.3 If detected in its early stages, the five-year survival rate for RCC is high; for patients with advanced or late-stage metastatic RCC, however, the five-year survival rate is only 12 percent, with no identified cure for the disease.2 Approximately 30,000 patients in the U.S. and 68,000 globally require treatment.4
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in men, behind only skin cancer.5 There is a high survival rate for patients when prostate cancer is detected early, but once the disease has spread to other parts of the body the five-year survival rate is just 28 percent.6 Approximately 2,850,000 men were living with prostate cancer in the U.S. in 2013,7 and 180,000 new cases are diagnosed each year.5
Urothelial cancers encompass carcinomas of the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis at a ratio of 50:3:1, respectively.8 Urothelial carcinoma occurs mainly in older people, with 90 percent of patients aged 55 or older.9 Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and accounts for about five percent of all new cases of cancer in the U.S. each year.9 In 2013, an estimated 587,426 people were living with bladder cancer in the U.S.10
About CABOMETYX™ (cabozantinib)
CABOMETYX is the tablet formulation of cabozantinib. Its targets include MET, AXL and VEGFR-1, -2 and -3. In preclinical models, cabozantinib has been shown to inhibit the activity of these receptors, which are involved in normal cellular function and pathologic processes such as tumor angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis and drug resistance.
CABOMETYX is available in 20 mg, 40 mg or 60 mg doses. The recommended dose is 60 mg orally, once daily.
Cabozantinib is not indicated for the treatment of refractory mUC and other genitourinary tumors.
U.S. Important Safety Information
Hemorrhage: Severe hemorrhage occurred with CABOMETYX. The incidence of Grade ≥3 hemorrhagic events was 2.1% in CABOMETYX-treated patients and 1.6% in everolimus-treated patients. Fatal hemorrhages also occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Do not administer CABOMETYX to patients that have or are at risk for severe hemorrhage.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Perforations and Fistulas: Fistulas were reported in 1.2% (including 0.6% anal fistula) of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0% of everolimus-treated patients. GI perforations were reported in 0.9% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0.6% of everolimus-treated patients. Fatal perforations occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Monitor patients for symptoms of fistulas and perforations. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who experience a fistula that cannot be appropriately managed or a GI perforation.
Thrombotic Events: CABOMETYX treatment results in an increased incidence of thrombotic events. Venous thromboembolism was reported in 7.3% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 2.5% of everolimus-treated patients. Pulmonary embolism occurred in 3.9% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0.3% of everolimus-treated patients. Events of arterial thromboembolism were reported in 0.9% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 0.3% of everolimus-treated patients. Fatal thrombotic events occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop an acute myocardial infarction or any other arterial thromboembolic complication.
Hypertension and Hypertensive Crisis: CABOMETYX treatment results in an increased incidence of treatment-emergent hypertension. Hypertension was reported in 37% (15% Grade ≥3) of CABOMETYX-treated patients and 7.1% (3.1% Grade ≥3) of everolimus-treated patients. Monitor blood pressure prior to initiation and regularly during CABOMETYX treatment. Withhold CABOMETYX for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with medical management; when controlled, resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Discontinue CABOMETYX for severe hypertension that cannot be controlled with anti-hypertensive therapy. Discontinue CABOMETYX if there is evidence of hypertensive crisis or severe hypertension despite optimal medical management.
Diarrhea: Diarrhea occurred in 74% of patients treated with CABOMETYX and in 28% of patients treated with everolimus. Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 11% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and in 2% of everolimus-treated patients. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 diarrhea or Grade 3-4 diarrhea that cannot be managed with standard antidiarrheal treatments until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Dose modification due to diarrhea occurred in 26% of patients.
Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia Syndrome (PPES): Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) occurred in 42% of patients treated with CABOMETYX and in 6% of patients treated with everolimus. Grade 3 PPES occurred in 8.2% of CABOMETYX-treated patients and in <1% of everolimus-treated patients. Withhold CABOMETYX in patients who develop intolerable Grade 2 PPES or Grade 3 PPES until improvement to Grade 1; resume CABOMETYX at a reduced dose. Dose modification due to PPES occurred in 16% of patients.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS): RPLS, a syndrome of subcortical vasogenic edema diagnosed by characteristic finding on MRI, occurred in the cabozantinib clinical program. Perform an evaluation for RPLS in any patient presenting with seizures, headache, visual disturbances, confusion, or altered mental function. Discontinue CABOMETYX in patients who develop RPLS.
Embryo-fetal Toxicity: CABOMETYX can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the last dose.
Adverse Reactions: The most commonly reported (≥25%) adverse reactions are: diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, PPES, hypertension, vomiting, weight decreased, and constipation.
Drug Interactions: Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers: Reduce the dosage of CABOMETYX if concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided. Increase the dosage of CABOMETYX if concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inducers cannot be avoided.
Lactation: Advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment with CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the final dose.
Reproductive Potential: Contraception―Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with CABOMETYX and for 4 months after the final dose. Infertility ―CABOMETYX may impair fertility in females and males of reproductive potential.
Hepatic Impairment: Reduce the CABOMETYX dose in patients with mild (Child-Pugh score [C-P] A) or moderate (C-P B) hepatic impairment. CABOMETYX is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Forward-Looking Statement Disclaimer
This press release contains forward-looking statements, including,
without limitation, statements related to: the further evaluation of
cabozantinib in combination with immunotherapies to treat a variety of
genitourinary tumors; future data results from expansion cohorts
assessing cabozantinib and nivolumab in bladder, renal and rare
genitourinary cancer patients;
The University of Arizona Cancer Center. What are genitourinary cancers? http://uacc.arizona.edu/patients/clinic/gucancer/what-are-gu-cancers. Accessed September 27, 2016.
|2.||American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2016.|
|3.||Jonasch E., Gao J., Rathmell W.K., Renal cell carcinoma. BMJ. 2014; 349:g4797.|
|4.||Decision Resources Report: Renal Cell Carcinoma. October 2014 (internal data on file).|
American Cancer Society. Key statistics for prostate cancer. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-key-statistics. Accessed September 28, 2016.
American Cancer Society. Survival rates for prostate cancer. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-survival-rates. Accessed September 28, 2016.
National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate Cancer. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html. Accessed September 28, 2016.
Hurwitz, M. et al. Urothelial and Kidney Cancers. Cancer Management. http://www.cancernetwork.com/cancer-management/urothelial-and-kidney-cancers. Accessed September 27, 2016.
American Cancer Society. Bladder Cancer Key Statistics. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladdercancer/detailedguide/bladder-cancer-key-statistics. Accessed May 23, 2016.
National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Bladder Cancer. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/urinb.html. Accessed May 23, 2016.
Susan Hubbard, 650-837-8194
EVP, Public Affairs and
Lindsay Treadway, 650-837-7522
Director, Public Affairs and